Make sure you know what the following concepts mean and how to use them appropriately:
- syntactic lexical category, or part of speech
- constituent (check the formal definition in (30))
- tree diagram (and related notions node, mother, daughter)
- phrase structure rule
- phrase structure grammar
- syntactic ambiguity, semantic ambiguity, pragmatic ambiguity
- lexical ambiguity, structural ambiguity
Make sure you understand:
- the formalism of phrase structure grammars (how the rules are made, what parts they have, how they can be used to generate trees, etc.)
- the Lexical Insertion rule and how to use it
Make sure you know how to:
- identify the syntactic category (aka part of speech) of a word in context using formal tests (see discussion of adjectives in (19)). I'll expect you to identify nouns, adjectives, verbs, prepositions, adverbs, determiners, and conjunctions.
- identify phrases and their type (see pp. 36-37, 40)
- build a phrase structure grammar that can be used to analyze a set of natural language sentences or phrases.
- create trees using a given phrase structure grammar.
- check if a given string is well formed according to a given phrase structure grammar.
- identify and represent lexical and structural syntactic ambiguity
- determine whether a given string of words forms a constituent through the use of constituency tests
- argue for or against a given analysis for a syntactic phenomenon.