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Chapter 3 Kroeger: Reading guide

Make sure you know what the following concepts mean and how to use them appropriately:

  • syntactic lexical category, or part of speech
  • constituent (check the formal definition in (30))
  • phrase
  • tree diagram (and related notions node, mother, daughter)
  • phrase structure rule
  • phrase structure grammar
  • syntactic ambiguity, semantic ambiguity, pragmatic ambiguity
  • lexical ambiguity, structural ambiguity
Make sure you understand:
  • the formalism of phrase structure grammars (how the rules are made, what parts they have, how they can be used to generate trees, etc.)
  • the Lexical Insertion rule and how to use it
    Make sure you know how to:
    • identify the syntactic category (aka part of speech) of a word in context using formal tests (see discussion of adjectives in (19)). I'll expect you to identify nouns, adjectives, verbs, prepositions, adverbs, determiners, and conjunctions.
    • identify phrases and their type (see pp. 36-37, 40)
    • build a phrase structure grammar that can be used to analyze a set of natural language sentences or phrases.
    • create trees using a given phrase structure grammar.
    • check if a given string is well formed according to a given phrase structure grammar.
    • identify and represent lexical and structural syntactic ambiguity
    • determine whether a given string of words forms a constituent through the use of constituency tests
    • argue for or against a given analysis for a syntactic phenomenon.